Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country. Historically home to the Sindhi people, it is also locally known as the Mehran. It was formerly known as Sind until 1956. Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, and second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, and Punjab province to the north. Sindh also borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, and Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh’s climate is noted for hot summers and mild winters. The provincial capital of Sindh is Pakistan’s largest city and financial hub, Karachi.
The Punjab also spelled panj-āb, land of “five rivers is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of South Asia, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. Not being a political unit, the extent of the region is the subject of debate and focuses on historical events to determine its boundaries. The Punjab region has been inhabited by Indus Valley Civilization, and has seen numerous invasions by the Achaemenid Empire, Greeks, Anshan Empire, Ghazvanid, Timurid, Mugfuls, Afghans, British and others. The foreign invaders mainly targeted the most productive region of Punjab known as the Majha region, located in central part of Punjab, which is also the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions.